Understanding Periodontal Diseases
A Whistle-Stop Tour of the Periodontium
- Define orthokeratinized.
- Describe gingival crevicular fluid.
- Describe the three types of gingival epithelium.
- Describe root cementum
- Describe the alveolar bone.
How Does Plaque Cause Disease?
- Define pathogen, commensal and opportunistic pathogen.
- Discuss the 1988 study by Preus and Olsen.
- Define planktonic, pioneer and corn-on-the-cob relationship.
- State why the use of antibiotics is counter-productive in chronic periodontitis.
- Define aerobic, anaerobic and facultative.
- State the three hypothesis that have developed to explain how bacteria causes periodontal diseases.
The Role of the Host Response
- Discuss the two types of immunity.
- Discuss the complement cascade.
- Describe the neutrophil.
- Compare the immunoglobulins IgM and IgG.
- Discuss a risk factor and define the two types.
- Describe risk markers and risk patients.
- List the four levels of the multi-level risk assessment and the patient-level risk factors.
- List the genetic, environmental, behavioral, lifestyle, and metabolic diseases/disorders risk factors for periodontitis.
Natural History and Clinical Signs of Periodontal Disease
- Discuss several natural history studies of periodontal disease.
- Compare the linear model and random burst or multiple asynchronous burst model
- Compare the clinical signs of gingivitis and periodontitis.
- State the principle limitation of clinical measures of periodontal disease.
Classification of Periodontal Diseases
- List the specific issues with the 1999 Classification System.
- State the main problem of the 1999 International Workshop System.
- Describe the ideal classification system
The Initial Consultation-Screening Examination
- Compare the medical history and social history.
- Compare the extra-oral and intra-oral exam.
- Describe the Basic Periodontal Examination.
- Compare the advantages and disadvantages of the Basic Periodontal Examination.
The Detailed Clinical Periodontal Examination
- Discuss bleeding on probing and probing pocket depth.
- Describe the significance and detection of furcation involvement.
- Describe grading of tooth mobility.
- Discuss errors associated with manual probing and how the type of probe affects the measurements.
Radiographic Examination and Special Tests
- Compare dental panoramic tomograms, bitewings, and periapicals.
- List the three aspects of bone loss.
- State several disadvantages of radiographs.
- List common blood tests.
- Describe a guttapercha point.
Periodontal Diagnosis and Prognosis
- Define a prognosis.
- List several local prognostic factors.