Orthodontics II

Learning Objectives

  1. Evaluate the malocclusions that can be treated with removable orthodontic appliances.
  2. Understand the uses of removable orthodontic appliances.
  3. Explain the use of the basic instruments necessary for the construction or removable orthodontic appliances.
  4. Describe the basic wires used for removable orthodontic treatment.
  5. Understand the significance of the different wire sizes used for removable orthodontic appliances.
  6. Define the terms “active” and “passive” orthodontic therapy.
  7. List the three specific parts of a removable orthodontic appliance.
  8. Describe the three purposes of the baseplate of a removable orthodontic appliance.
  9. Explain how the baseplate of a removable orthodontic appliance can act as the active element of the appliance.
  10. Define the term “anchorage” as it applies to removable orthodontic appliance therapy.
  11. Discuss the primary anchorage of a maxillary removable orthodontic appliance
  12. Explain the two reasons why it is best to cover the entire palate on a maxillary removable orthodontic appliance
  13. Describe how best to take a maxillary impression on a patient that has a sensitive “gag” reflex
  14. Discuss why the lower baseplate of a removable orthodontic appliance presents special problems to the clinician
  15. Explain how the clinician can overcome the problem of lingual undercuts during the construction of a lower removable orthodontic appliance
  16. List the types of retentive clasps used for removable orthodontic appliance therapy
  17. Describe the most commonly used clasp for retention of removable orthodontic appliances
  18. Understand the actions of removable orthodontic appliances
  19. List the three different types of springs used in removable orthodontic appliance therapy
  20. Differentiate between the “active” and “passive” uses of the Hawley removable orthodontic appliance
  21. List the two main “free-ended” springs used in removable orthodontic appliances
  22. Discuss the range of potential activity of the helical coil spring
  23. Describe the physical properties of wires used in removable orthodontic appliances
  24. Understand the mechanics of action and the vectors of force when using various finger springs of a removable orthodontic appliance
  25. Explain the evolution of fixed orthodontic appliances
  26. Explain the use of the basic instruments used for fixed orthodontic appliances
  27. Describe how to use the various banding instruments
  28. Discuss the three principal components of fixed orthodontic appliances
  29. Understand the purposes of a tight-fitting orthodontic band
  30. Explain the technique utilized in proper orthodontic band placement
  31. Describe the proper positioning of a posterior orthodontic band
  32. Define the term “k” distance as it pertains to orthodontic bracket positioning
  33. Explain the term “edgewise” as it pertains to a popular fixed orthodontic appliance
  34. Describe the various “attachments” that can be welded or soldered to an orthodontic band
  35. Differentiate the various bracket slot sizes used in the edgewise appliance
  36. Differentiate between the use of a single edgewise bracket and a twin edgewise bracket
  37. Understand the advantages and disadvantages of the bonding system and the traditional banding techniques
  38. Describe the different types of tubes and sizes used on orthodontic molar bands
  39. List the various auxiliaries that can be attached to orthodontic bands
  40. Explain the four basic requirements of orthodontic wires
  41. List the four types of metal alloys used in orthodontic wires for fixed appliance therapy, and the advantages of each
  42. Explain the various shapes of orthodontic wires used in fixed appliance therapy
  43. Describe the difference between continuous and segmented arch wires and how they are used in fixed appliance therapy
  44. Define the term “anchorage” as it relates to tooth movement
  45. List the five objectives of early orthodontic treatment
  46. Describe Brodie’s theory of a child’s growth pattern
  47. Explain some of the extrinsic factors that create functional interferences of the occlusion during growth
  48. Differentiate between “transient” and “incipient” malocclusions, and give examples of each
  49. Understand the three basic types of orthodontic treatment, and how they relate to the various stages of dental development
  50. List the “trident” of habit factors
  51. Know at what age a child should stop his or her prolonged thumb sucking habit before permanent damage occurs to the dentition
  52. Describe the appliance therapy used to discourage a prolonged thumb sucking habit
  53. Explain what is considered to be a typical “thumb sucking malocclusion”
  54. Differentiate between “infantile” and “somatic” swallowing patterns
  55. Describe the appliance therapy used to discourage a tongue thrusting problem
  56. Explain why proliferated adenoid tissue causes mouth breathing
  57. Explain why nasal breathing is important for health reasons
  58. Answer why the surgical removal of proliferated adenoid tissue is controversial
  59. List the two reasons that cause nasal obstruction,
  60. Understand the reasons for spacing between anterior teeth, and the orthodontic techniques to close these spaces
  61. Explain the controversy regarding the relationship between a midline diastema and an abnormal frenum attachment
  62. Describe the “ugly duckling” stage of dental development
  63. Evaluate the “eruption potential” with regard to root development
  64. Discuss the different methods utilized in performing a “frenectomy”
  65. List the advantages of using an electrosurgical technique in performing a “frenectomy”
  66. Describe the differences between a true skeletal Class III malocclusion and a Class III that is caused by an anterior mandibular displacement
  67. Discuss why the retention of the treatment of individual anterior and posterior cross bites is uncomplicated
  68. Discuss elastic therapy, and how it may be used in the treatment of individual posterior cross bites
  69. Know the relationship between a prolonged thumb sucking habit and a narrow maxillary complex
  70. Explain the activations of a quad helix appliance
  71. Understand why the quad helix appliance is “age dependent,” and how its use differs between the treatment of children and adult patients
  72. Define the term “rapid palatal expansion,” and the rational for using orthopedic appliances to expand the maxilla
  73. Differentiate between orthodontic and orthopedic forces
  74. Differentiate between a cervical-pull and a high-pull head gear, and when to utilize each appliance
  75. Describe a combination-pull head gear, and why it may be a more desirable appliance than a cervical or high-pull head gear
  76. Know what a chin cup appliance is, and the variations of this device
  77. Understand the evolution of orthopedic appliances

Course Contents

1 Principles of Removable Orthodontic Appliances

  • Introduction
  • Instrumentation
  • Orthodontic Wires
  • Acrylic and Wire Appliances
  • Planning of Anchorage
  • Retentive Clasps
  • Action of Removable Orthodontic Appliances
  • Mechanics of Action
  • Vectors of Force
  • References

2 Principles of Fixed Orthodontic Appliances

  • Introduction
  • Instrumentation
  • Components of Fixed Orthodontic Appliances
  • Anchorage
  • References

3 Interceptive and Limited Orthodontic Techniques

  • Introduction
  • Objectives of Early Orthodontic Treatment
  • Examples for Early Orthodontic Treatment
  • References

4 Limited Corrective Orthodontic Techniques

  • Anterior Space Closure
  • Midline Diastema Closure
  • Frenum Attachments
  • Anterior Cross Bites
  • Posterior Cross Bites
  • Orthopedic Force Application
  • References

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