Oral Complications of Diabetes

Contents and Outline

Diabetes, Clinical Dentistry and Changing Paradigms

  • Battling and Insidious Foe
  • A Challenge for Dentists
  • A Biology of Complexity
  • Types of diabetes
  • Identifying those at risk
  • How Diabetes Occurs
  • IDDM
  • Treating IDDM
  • Criteria for Impaired Glucose Tolerance
  • Treating NIDDM
  • Other treatments for NIDDM
  • Promoting Health, Preventing The Disease
  • Conclusion
  • For Additional Information

Oral Complications in Diabetes

  • Summary
  • Caries (Tooth Decay)
  • Periodontal Disease
  • Figure 1. Prevalence of Periodontal Disease in IDDM
  • Patients, by Age
  • Figure 2. Periodontal Attachment Loss in IDDM Patients and Nondiabetic Persons
  • Figure 3. Periodontal Attachment Loss According to Retinal
  • Changes in IDDM Patients and Nondiabetic Persons
  • Figure 4. Severity of Periodontal Disease Among Diabetic and Nondiabetic Pima Indians
  • Figure 5. Distribution of Interproximal Alveolar Bone Loss in Diabetic and Nondiabetic Persons
  • Table 1. Incidence of Periodontal Disease in Pima Indians by Diabetes Status
  • Saliva
  • Other Pathological Features of the Oral Cavity
  • References

Oral Opportunistic Infections: Links to Systemic Diseases

  • Diabetes Mellitus
  • Preterm Low Birth Weight Babies
  • Table 1. Oral Manifestations of Common Secondary Causes of Diabetes
  • Table 2. Oral Manifestations of Other Autoimmune Diseases That May Coexist With Type 1 Diabetes
  • Diseases Associated With Diabetes

Detection and Prevention of Periodontal Disease in Diabetes

  • Overview
  • Gingivitis
  • Thrush
  • Pathophysiology
  • Progress of Periodontal Disease
  • Diabetic Control
  • Oral Factors
  • Natural Dentition
  • Oral Hygiene
  • Acute Infections
  • Oral Surgery
  • Diabetes Control
  • Risk of Infection
  • References

Oral Complications of Diabetes: A Guide for Dental Hygienists

  • Oral Complications
  • Dental Management
  • Diabetic Emergencies
  • The Role of Diet
  • Planning Dental Treatment
  • Dental Tips for Patients With Diabetes

Oral Complications of Diabetes: A Guide for Patients

  • What is the relationship between poor oral health and diabetes?
  • What is the link between diabetes and periodontal disease?
  • Diabetic Control
  • Blood Vessel Changes
  • Bacteria
  • Smoking
  • Controlled Diabetics Have New Reason to Smile
  • How does periodontal disease develop?
  • Gingivitis
  • Periodontitis
  • How is periodontal disease treated?
  • Plaque Removal
  • Periodontal Surgery
  • Since I have diabetes, do I need to do anything to prepare for oral surgery?
  • Are other oral problems linked to diabetes?
  • Dental Cavities
  • Thrush
  • Dry Mouth
  • Keep your teeth
  • How can you protect your teeth and gums?
  • Check Your Work
  • Dental Checkups
  • Things to keep in mind


Learning Objectives

After completing this course you’ll be able to:

  1. Describe the epidemiology of diabetes mellitus in the U.S. particularly in minority populations.
  2. Describe the morbidity and mortality of diabetes.
  3. Explain the importance of glycemic control in a diabetic patient.
  4. Describe the etiology and pathogenesis of Type I (IDDM) diabetes.
  5. Describe the etiology and pathogenesis of Type 2 diabetes.
  6. Describe the long-term complications of diabetes.
  7. Explain the genetics of diabetes.
  8. Explain the interrelationship between glycemic control and periodontitis.
  9. Make the genetic connection between the increased risk for periodontitis and diabetes.
  10. Explain the pathophysiological mechanism involved in the destruction of collagen, accelerated alveolar bone loss and diabetes.
  11. Evaluate direct and indirect evidence considering diabetes as a risk factor for periodontal health.
  12. Compare the effect of mechanical periodontal treatment and systemic antibiotics therapy in improving periodontal status as well as glycemic control.
  13. Describe the connection between diabetes and oral health in older adults.
    • Link between diabetes and periodontal disease
    • How the disease develops
    • How it is treated
    • Other health problems linked to diabetes
    • How to protect teeth and gums
  14. Provide patient teaching in the following areas:
  15. Describe the connection between bacterial infections and diabetes.
  16. List various microorganisms that are risk indicators for periodontitis in diabetic patients.
  17. Describe the study that explored the hypothesis that control of periodontal infection improves metabolic control of diabetes
    Elaborate on the link between severe periodontal disease in pregnant women and increased risk of delivering pre-term low birth weight babies, and discuss the possible reason for this relationship.
  18. Describe the role of saliva in fighting plaque and gum disease.
  19. Identify signs and symptoms of diabetic emergencies–hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia–and suggest emergency measures during a dental appointment.
  20. Establish the connection between diabetes and periodontal disease.
  21. Explain the pathophysiology of dental infections in diabetic patients and list factors contributing to periodontal disease.
  22. Explain the importance of maintaining natural dentition in diabetic patients.
  23. Explain to the patient the link between diabetes and periodontal disease.
  24. Explain the link between diabetes and periodontal disease , and discuss the impact of factors such as diabetic control, blood vessel changes, bacteria and smoking on the disease.
  25. Emphasize the importance of good diabetic control on controlling the periodontal disease, and vice versa.
  26. Describe to the patient the progression of periodontal disease from gingivitis to periodontitis.
  27. Describe the treatment of periodontal disease, including plaque removal and periodontal surgery.
  28. Provide 4 important tips to a diabetic patient regarding dental health and oral surgery.
  29. Discuss other oral problems linked to diabetes, such as dental cavities, thrush, dry mouth.

To assess the effectiveness of the course material, we ask that you evaluate your achievement of each learning objective on a scale of A to D (A=excellent, B=good, C=fair, D=unsatisfactory). Please indicate your responses next to each learning objective and return it to us with your completed exam.