Digital Radiography

Learning Objectives

After completing this course, you will be able to:

  1. List the effects of finger/thumb-sucking habits.
  2. Describe the etiology and management of buccal segment problems, such as retained primary tooth, intra-occluded primary molars, posterior crossbite with mandibular displacement, etc.
  3. Describe the etiology and management of labial segment problems, such as upper median diastema, dilaceration, retained primary incisor, etc.
  4. Describe the etiology, detection and management of ectopic maxillary canines.
  5. Provide some basic guidelines for treatment of crowding in Class I cases.
  6. Define crossbite, classify it into buccal and lingual, describe its etiology and indicate the need for treatment.
  7. Define anterior open bite, provide its etiology and suggest various treatments.
  8. List 4 active components of removable appliances and their characteristics.
  9. Provide indications for fixed appliances.
  10. List various fixed appliance types and describe their applications.
  11. List various special considerations in adult orthodontics and explain how these affect the course of treatment.
  12. Identify various surgical procedures involving maxilla and mandible in the orthodontic management of adults.
  13. Describe the pre- and postsurgical orthodontics in adults.
  14. Describe common clinical features of the cleft lip and palate.
  15. Describe the clinical features and possible effects of natal/neonatal teeth.
  16. Describe the etiology, clinical features and management of nursing caries.
  17. List the extrinsic and intrinsic factors involved in tooth discoloration.
  18. Describe the etiology and management of enamel hypoplasia and fluorosis.
  19. List the clinical features of three main types of enamel anomaly.
  20. Distinguish between the clinical features of hyperdontia and hypodontia.
  21. List the dietary and gastric regurgitation factors that lead to tooth surface loss.
  22. Describe the management of primary tooth trauma.
  23. Describe the management of permanent tooth trauma I and II, including reattachment of crown fragments, total or sub-total pulpotomy, induced apical closure, periodontal ligament injuries and dentoalveolar fractures.
  24. Classify permanent tooth trauma III into internal resorption, external resorption and replacement resorption.
  25. Describe the clinical features of the following medical conditions: down syndrome, childhood cancer, congenital cardiac disease and bleeding disorders.
  26. Describe the diagnosis of the following viral infections: primary herpetic gingivostomatitis, secondary (recurrent) herpes labialis, ocular herpes, herpes zoster and hand-foot-and-mouth disease.
  27. Describe the etiology, diagnosis and management of gingivitis.
  28. Provide classification of gingival overgrowth (localized gingival hyperplasia, drug-induced gingival overgrowth and hereditary gingival fibromatosis) and describe their management.
  29. Describe the etiology, diagnosis and management of mucosal disease: granulomas, traumatic lesions I and traumatic lesions II.
  30. Describe the etiology, diagnosis and management of assorted mucosal lesions: geographic tongue, lichen planus, orofacial granulomatosis, pericoronitis, denture stomatits, infective papilloma, and periapical infection.

Digital Radiography–Not If But When

  • The Digital World
  • Image Quality
    • Quantifying Image Quality
  • Pixel Density
  • Cost
  • Radiation Reduction
  • Remaking Images
  • Image Transmission
    • Legal Issues
    • High-Speed Communication Services
    • Image Importing and Exporting
  • Configuration
    • Image Size
    • Archiving
  • Image Capture
  • Image Enhancement
  • Summary

Digital X-Rays Are Here; Why Aren’t You Using Them?

  • Digital Technology
  • Direct vs. Indirect Digital Images
    • Table 1. Current CCD-Based Digital X-Rays Systems
    • Table 2. Advantages and Perceived Disadvantages of Digital Radiography
  • CMOS Technology
  • PSP Technology
    • Table 3. Comparison of Approximate Costs of Initial Imaging Systems
    • Table 4. Comparison of Approximate Costs of Initial Imaging Systems
  • Advantages
  • Perceived Disadvantages
  • Cost
  • Other Obstacles
    • Lack of Familiarity and Use
    • Ergonomic Concerns
    • Work Flow Needs
    • Lack of Training
    • Software Interfacing
  • Digital Panoramic Technology
  • Potential Drawbacks
    • Cost
    • Training
    • Computer Literacy
  • Future Developments in Digital Panoramic Imaging
  • Integrating Intraoral and Panoramic Imaging
  • Authors
  • References

Digital Radiography in Dentistry: What It Should Do For You

  • Myth Number 1 – XYZ Is The Right System For Every Practice and All Digital Imaging Needs
  • Myth Number 2 – ABC Sensor system (Direct Digital) or DEF Phosphor Plate System (Indirect Digital) Is the Only Answer for Your Practice
  • Myth Number 3 – Dedicated/Special X-ray Equipment Is Required
  • Myth Number 4 – Digital Radiography is More Expensive
  • Myth Number 5 – Techno Blurb
  • Conclusions

What You Need to Know Before You Buy

  • Choices, Choices
    • What are the advantages to digital radiography?
    • What are the perceived obstacles?
    • What equipment do I need to go digital?
  • Image Display and Analysis
  • Subtraction Radiography
  • Contrast Manipulation
  • Color
  • 3-D Reconstruction and Display
  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Computer-Aided Diagnosis
  • Caries Diagnosis
  • Periodontal Disease
  • Periapical Pathology
  • Implantology
  • Orthodontics
  • Bone Disease
  • Hardware Development
  • Dynamic Range
  • Dose Response
  • Sensitivity
  • Signal-to-Noise Ratio
  • Resolution
  • Density Standards
  • Size Formats
  • Component Modularity and Standardization
  • Ergonomics
  • Administrative Applications
  • Teleradiology
  • Electronic Insurance Filing
  • Pattern Recognition
  • Security
  • Authors
  • Conclusions
  • References