Thyroid Disorders

By: Kenneth Ain, M.D & M. Sara Rosenthal, Ph.D.

Course Outline

The only book you need to understand and treat your thyroid condition.

Combining the expertise of two pioneers in the field—world-renowned thyroid specialist Kenneth Ain, M.D., and bestselling thyroid author and bioethicist M. Sara Rosenthal, Ph.D. — The Complete Thyroid Book provides all the essential information for the diagnosis of and treatment options for thyroid disease.

Completely updated with the latest research, this book provides a comprehensive look at tests, scans, and state-of-the-art therapies and treatments for every type of thyroid condition.

The Complete Thyroid Book, now revised and updated, is your source for information on:

  • Thyroid hormone and all other medications used in thyroid treatment.
  • Thyroid disease in special populations, including pregnant women, menopausal women, infants, children, and the elderly.
  • Nutrition, environmental issues, and public health.
  • State-of-the-art treatments, including how to balance thyroid hormone.
  • Diagnosis and treatment of hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and thyroid cancer.
  • Tests and scans you need to have—and what the results mean.

About Authors

KENNETH AIN, M.D., is a professor of medicine and director of the Thyroid Oncology Program, University of Kentucky. He is also director of the Thyroid Cancer Research Laboratory at the VA Medical Center in Lexington, Kentucky. He founded and moderates the thyroid cancer patient education Yahoo group thyroidcancerhelp.

SARA ROSENTHAL, PH.D., is an associate professor of bioethics, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, and director of the University of Kentucky Program for Bioethics. Dr. Rosenthal has written more than thirty health books, including several on thyroid disease. Both authors live in Lexington, Kentucky.

Learning Objectives

After completing this course you’ll be able to:

  1. Describe how the thyroid begins to develop.
  2. State how the thyroid got its name.
  3. Compare a diffuse and nodular goiter.
  4. Discuss the role of the thyroid gland.
  5. Compare T3 and T4.
  6. Define euthyroidism, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and thyrotoxicosis.
  7. Describe the TSH test.
  8. Define thyroglobulin.
  9. Describe the three major kinds of antithyroid antibodies.
  10. Discuss preparation for whole body scans.
  11. Define bosselated, goiter, Pemberton’s maneuver.
  12. State why CT scans are useful and dangerous.
  13. Describe a fine-needle aspiration biopsy.
  14. Compare primary hypothyroidism and secondary hypothyroidism.
  15. Discuss the problems of iodine deficiency and excess.
  16. List several signs of hypothyroidism.
  17. Discuss how hypothyroidism is treated.
  18. Define hyperthyroidism and thyrotoxicosis.
  19. List several symptoms of thyrotoxicosis.
  20. Discuss off-labeling prescribing.
  21. Discuss antibodies, antigens, and autoimmune disorders.
  22. Discuss the statistical occurrence of thyroiditis.
  23. Define polyglandular autoimmune disease.

Course Contents

1. What Is the Thyroid, and What Does It Do?

  1. How It Formed, Where It Is, What It Does
  2. An Introduction to Thyroid Hormone

2. Test and Labs: Diagnosing Thyroid Disease

  • 2.1 Tests That Measure Thyroid Hormone Levels
  • 2.2 TSH: The Most Sensitive Test to Assess Thyroid Hormone Status
  • 2.3 Thyroglobulin: The Specific Thyroid Protein
  • 2.4 Thyroid Hormone-Binding Proteins
  • 2.5 Measuring Thyroid Antibodies
  • 2.6 Dynamic Tests of Thyroid Function
  • 2.7 Tests of Metabolism
  • 2.8 Radioactive Thyroid Tests
  • 2.9 X-Rays, Ultrasounds, and Other Diagnostic Pictures
  • 2.10 Pathology, Do You Nedd Surgery? What Did the Surgeon Find?

3. Hypothyroidism: The Most Common Problem

  • 3.1 Why Am I Hypothyroid? 39 Slowing Down: Signs of Hypothyroidism
  • 3.2 Diagnosing Hypothyroidism
  • 3.3 Treating Hypothyroidism
  • 3.4 Why Do I Still Feel Hypothyroid

4. Too Much Thyroid Hormone: Thyrotoxicosis

  • 4.1 Symptoms of Too Much Thyroid Hormone
  • 4.2 The Emotional Effects of Thyrotoxicosis
  • 4.3 Causes of Thyrotoxicosis Without Hyperthyroidism?
  • 4.4 Thyrotoxicosis with Hyperthyroidism
  • 4.5 Intrinsic Thyroid Autonomy: Independent Thyroid Hormone Manufacturers
  • 4.6 Diagnosing Thyrotoxicosis and/or Hyperthyroidism
  • 4.7 Treating Thyrotoxicosis

5. Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis and Other Types of Thyroiditis

  • 5.1 What Is an Autoimmune Disorder?
  • 5.2 Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis
  • 5.3 Other Common Autoimmune Disorders
  • 5.4 Other Forms of Thyroiditis

6. Graves’ Disease

  • 6.1 What Happens in Graves’ Disease?
  • 6.2 Diagnosing Graves’ Disease
  • 6.3 Treating Graves’ Disease
  • 6.4 Screening Family Members for Graves’ Disease
  • 6.5 Are There Natural Therapies for Graves’ Disease?

7. Goiter: An Enlarged Thyroid Gland

  • 7.1 Evaluating a Goiter
  • 7.2 Types of Goiter

8. Thyroid Nodules

  • 8.1 Finding a Thyroid Nodule
  • 8.2 Steps in Evaluating a Thyroid Nodule
  • 8.3 Hot Nodules
  • 8.4 Radiation Exposure to the Neck During Childhood

9. Thyroid Cancer

  • 9.1 Who Gets Thyroid Cancer?
  • 9.2 What Causes Thyroid Cancer?
  • 9.3 Types of Thyroid Cancers and Their Behavior
  • 9.4 Treatment for Papillary and Follicular Thyroid Cancers
  • 9.5 Diagnosis Evaluation: Long-Term Follow-Up

10. Thyroid Hormone: The Inside Scoop

  • 10.1 How It All Started
  • 10.2 T4: The Details
  • 10.3 T3: Specific and Limited Users
  • 10.4 Mixtures of T3 and T4
  • 10.5 Thyroid Extracts, or Natural Thyroid Hormone

11. Other Drugs Used in Thyroid Disease

  • 11.1 Drugs Used to Treat Hyperthyroidism
  • 11.2 Stable Iodide 162 Potassium Perchlorate
  • 11.3 Lithium Carbonate
  • 11.4 Treatment of Hypoparathyroidism: Low Calcium

12. Radioactive Iodine Theraphy

  • 12.1 What Is Radioactivity
  • 12.2 Types of Treatment with Radioactive Iodine

13. Thyroid Disease in Pregnancy and After Delivery

  • 13.1 The Normal Thyroid in Pregnancy
  • 13.2 Being Pregnant with Preexisting Thyroid Disease
  • 13.3 Gestational Thyroid Disease (Thyroid Disease During Pregnancy)
  • 13.4 Discovering Thyroid Nodules in Pregnancy
  • 13.5 After the Baby is Born

14. Thyroid Disease During Menopause

  • 14.1 Natural Menopause
  • 14.2 HRT, Menopause, and Thyroid Disease
  • 14.3 Osteoporosis
  • 14.4 Staying Alert About Heart Disease

15. Thyroid Disease in Infants and Children

  • 15.1 Thyroid Disease in Newborns and Infants
  • 15.2 Thyroid Disease in Children and Adolescents

16. Thyroid Disease and Obesity

  • 16.1 Defining Obesity
  • 16.2 Inappropriate Drug Treatments for Obesity
  • 16.3 Lowering Fat and Healthy Eating

17. Thyroid Disease and Older Individuals

  • 17.1 Hypothyroidism in Older Persons
  • 17.2 Thyrotoxicosis in Older Persons
  • 17.3 Other Thyroid Problems
  • 17.4 Thyroid Disease in a Person with Alzheimer’s Disease

18. Thyroid Hormone Resistance and Rare Genetic Disorders of the Thyroid

  • 18.1 Resistance to Thyroid Hormone (RTH) or Thyroid Hormone Resistance
  • 18.2 Pituitary and Hypothalamic Diseases and Other Genetic Disorders

19. Thyroid Misconceptions and Misinformation

  • 19.1 False Statements About Hypothyroidism
  • 19.2 Misconceptions About Radioactive Iodine (RAT)
  • 19.3 Other Myths About Thyroid Cancer

20. Special Diets for Thyroid Disease and Healthy Eating

  • 20.1 The High-Fiber Diet for Hypothyroidism 271 The Low-Iodine Diet (LID)
  • 20.2 What to Eat if You’re Hyperthyroid
  • 20.3 What to Eat After Treatment for Thyroid Disease
  • 20.4 The Mediterranean Diet

21. Making an Informed Decision

  • 21.1 The Standards of Care
  • 21.2 What You Should Know About Ethical Guidelines in Health Care
  • 21.3 Steps Toward Informed Decision Making

22. Coping with Thyroid Eye Disease

  • 22.1 What Is Thyroid Eye Disease?
  • 22.2 Battling the Bulge: Treating TED
  • 22.3 Dry Eyes

23. Coping with Depression, Anxiety, and Other Mental Health Disorders

  • 23.1 Unipolar Depression and Hypothyroidism
  • 23.2 Anxiety, Panic Disorder, and Thyroid Disease
  • 23.3 When Your Body Feels Your Emotional Pain: Somatization Disorder

24. Coping with Heart Disease

  • 24.1 Heart Complications from Hypothyroidism
  • 24.2 Heart Complications from Thyrotoxicosis

25. Coping with Fatigue

  • 25.1 Normal Fatigue
  • 25.2 Abnormal Fatigue: Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

26. Thyroid and Public Health

  • 26.1 Environmental Issues in Thyroid and Endocrine Disease
  • 26.2 Screening Fertile Women for Hypothyroidism
  • 26.3 Iodine Deficiency in Pregnancy
  • 26.4 The Radioactive Iodine Shortage
  • 26.5 Potassium Iodide in the Age of Nuclear Reactors and Terrorism

Appendix A: Thyroid Links on the Web
Appendix B: Links to Other Conditions Related to Thyroid Disease
Supportive Literature