Nutritional Disorders of Children
After completing this course you will be able to:
Part I: Screening and Follow-up
- Plan a screening program aimed at identifying individuals in a community likely to be at nutritional risk.
- Formulate questions about diet and eating habits of children.
- Describe proper procedure to be employed to measure height and weight of children.
- Analyze and interpret assessments of small size for age or low weight for height measurements.
- Provide interpretation of excess weight for height.
- Describe the procedure for measurement of skin fold thickness.
- List desired hemoglobin concentration in children of various ages.
- Formulate an interview questionnaire by nutritionist.
Part II: Prevention of Common Disorders
- Define obesity.
- Describe three factors that provide early prediction of later obesity.
- Explain hyperplasia of adipose tissue.
- Discuss clinical studies that have correlated the imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure to obesity.
- Discuss the importance of establishing early good eating habits.
- Define atherosclerosis. Discuss the controversy surrounding atherosclerosis and the management of diet in early childhood.
- Discuss opinions opposing and favoring change in children’s diets.
- Discuss the potential hazards of altering diets of infants and children.
- Chapter 3: Prevention of Dental Caries
- Identify 3 prerequisites for production of dental caries.
- Discuss the epidemiology of dental caries.
- Discuss how various dietary factors affect the incidence of dental caries.
- List in the order of importance, cariogenicity factors of 6 dietary habits.
- Describe how various carbohydrates serve as substrates for the production of plaque and organic acids.
- List foods to be avoided by children between meals.
- Describe the “nursing bottle caries” and its causative factors.
- Describe how fluoride helps protect teeth against caries.
- Define iron deficiency anemia in infants and children.
- List 3 groups in which the concentrations of hemoglobin are below the normal range.
- Describe the iron requirement for male and female children in various age groups.
- Describe the absorption rates of iron naturally present in foods from animal sources and vegetable sources.
- Distinguish between absorption of hemeiron and non-hemeiron.
- Discuss means of achieving dietary requirements for infants, preschool children, school age children, males-years of age, and females-years of age
PART ONE: SCREENING AND FOLLOWUP
Information about the community
Information about the family and the child
Questions about diet and eating habits
- Questionnaire I-Infants
- Questionnaire II-Preschool children and young school-age children whose parent or caretaker will answer for them
- Questionnaire III-School-age children and adolescents who answer the questions themselves
Height (or length) and weight
PART TWO: PREVENTION OF COMMON DISORDERS
Samuel J. Fomon and Ekhard E. Ziegler
- Early prediction of later obesity
- Energy intake and expenditure
- Establishing habits
Samuel J. Fomon
- Definition, pathogenesis and general considerations
- The current controversy
- Familial hyperlipoproteinemia
Samuel J. Fornon and Stephen H. Y. Wei
- Foods and feeding
- Cleaning the teeth
- Establishing habits
Samuel J. Fornon, Ekhard E. Ziegler and Thomas A. Anderson
- Iron requirements
- Absorption of iron
- Dietary intake of iron
- Means of achieving dietary requirements