Evaluation of Individual Objectives

To assess the effectiveness of the course material, we ask that you evaluate your achievement of each learning objective on a scale of A to D (A=excellent, B=good, C=fair, D=unsatisfactory). Please indicate your responses next to each learning objective and return it to us with your completed exam.

Learning Objectives

Upon completion of the course you’ll be able to:

  1. Describe how HIV is transmitted and dispel some of the common misconceptions about how one cannot get HIV.
  2. Describe the presence and possibility of transmission of HIV in households, food- service establishments, through kissing, biting, saliva, tears, sweat and insects.
  3. Distinguish HIV-from HIV-with respect to its infectiousness, prevalence, testing and clinical treatment.
  4. Describe the natural history of HIV infection in adults and the progression of the
    disease to AIDS.
  5. Discuss the CDC system for classifying HIV infection and AIDS in adults and adolescents in the U.S. and identify clinical conditions under each of the three categories.
  6. Contrast the clinical HIV staging system used by the World Health Organization with the one used in the U.S. and identify the performance scale criteria that define the classical stages of the disease.
  7. Define “viral set-point” and indicate its use in predicting the rate of future progression of the illness.
  8. List various laboratory tests used as indicators of prognosis and/or stage of illness in HIV infection and weigh their advantages and disadvantages.
  9. List host factors, viral factors, acquired factors and clinical indicators that influence the rate of HIV-disease progression.
  10. Describe the measures that should be taken to control the HIV epidemic world- wide.
  11. Identify the three primary routes of HIV transmission and indicate the relative risk of infection.
  12. Discuss the three factors–infectiousness of the host, susceptibility of the recipient and the quantity and infectivity of the virus–that influence the transmission of HIV infection.
  13. Identify the HIV/AIDS prevention needs of women.
  14. Address the special challenges posed to the prevention of HIV epidemic in the African American community.
  15. Describe the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS among Hispanics in the U.S. and compare
    HIV exposure risks for U.S.-born Hispanics and Hispanics born in their countries.
  16. Describe the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS among America ‘s youth.
  17. Indicate various categories of persons for whom counseling and early diagnosis of
    HIV infection are recommended.
  18. List the categories of people for whom HIV-testing is indicated.
  19. Describe the standard screening test for antibody to HIV and contrast it with the rapid HIV testing.
  20. Discuss the various advantages and disadvantages of rapid HIV test as compared to an EIA.
  21. Understand the importance of measuring HIV-RNA blood levels (viral load.)
  22. Explain what “undetectable” level of HIV in the blood means.
  23. List steps for the correct use of condoms.
  24. List goals and objectives of HIV counseling, testing and referral services.
  25. Describe necessary elements of HIV counseling, testing and referral services.
  26. Develop and monitor standards and guidelines for HIV counseling, testing and
    referral program.
  27. Formulate an HIV-prevention counseling program based on the standards and guidelines established by the CDC.
  28. Design and set up a program for notification of HIV test results depending upon the results being positive, negative or indeterminate.
  29. Describe what the counselor should do with respect to repeat testing if the previous HIV-test was positive or negative or indeterminate.
  30. Provide counseling to clients who doubt previous seropositive test results.
  31. Discuss the partner notification program as a means to identify and target risk-
  32. reduction eduction to individuals at high risk for contracting or transmitting HIV infection.
  33. Identify and describe the two complementary notification processes used to identify partners: patient referral and provider referral.
  34. Describe the five goals of HIV prevention case management (PCM).
  35. Differentiate PCM from other HIV risk-reduction activities, such as street outreach and HIV counseling and testing.
  36. Make the connection between sexually transmitted diseases and HIV and explain how other STDs facilitate HIV transmission.
  37. Point to the new evidence of the effectiveness of STD treatment in HIV prevention.
  38. Point to statistics showing the effectiveness of condoms in preventing HIV and STDs.
  39. Discuss the study sponsored by the CDC that quantified the risk of HIV infection associated with oral transmission.
  40. Describe the prevalence of HIV among men who have sex with men and outline the measures to combat the spread of STDs and HIV in this population group.
  41. Describe the risk of HIV transmission among women who have sex with women and list specific measures that should be taken to reduce their risk of contracting HIV.
  42. Discuss the injection drug use and the transmission of HIV and other blood-borne infections.
  43. Make specific recommendations to drug users who continue to inject to reduce the public and individual health risks.
  44. Describe the extent of the problem in curbing the transmission of HIV and other blood-borne diseases in the intravenous drug-using (IDU) population.
  45. Enunciate the basic principles underlying the comprehensive approach to working with IDUs.
  46. Outline various strategies to prevent blood-borne infections among IDUs that
  47. include substance abuse treatment, community outreach, access to sterile syringes, services in the criminal justice system, prevention through sexual transmission and counseling and testing services.
  48. Define universal precautions and list body fluids to which universal precautions apply and those to which they do not apply.
  49. Discuss precautions that a healthcare worker should take for other body fluids in special settings.
  50. Describe general guidelines for healthcare workers in the use of protective barriers.
  51. Discuss why the routine use of gloves for all phlebotomies is not necessary.
  52. Identify general guidelines in the selection and use of gloves in healthcare settings.
  53. Explain the existing recommendations for the use of antiretroviral drugs after occupa- tional and nonoccupational exposures to HIV.
  54. Articulate why antiretroviral drug therapy for sexual, drug use, or other nonoccupational exposures to HIV should not be used.
  55. Discuss the risk of infection to HBV, HCV and HIV following occupational exposures to blood and explain the treatment measures that should be taken following the exposure.
  56. Identify 1essential elements of comprehensive programs for the prevention of HIV Infection.
  57. Discuss guiding principles that form the basis of comprehensive HIV prevention programs targeted toward specific population groups, such as high-risk individuals, partners of infected individuals, HIV-infected individuals engaging in sexual and drug- related behaviors that put them at risk, youth, inmates in correctional facilities and healthcare workers.
  58. Provide comprehensive HIV prevention interventions for substance abusers.
  59. Identify the prevention measures for the transmission of perinatal HIV.
  60. Evaluate the risk healthcare workers face of getting HIV on the job.
  61. Evaluate the risk of patients in a dentist’s or doctor’s office of getting HIV.
  62. Review the effectiveness of HIV prevention programs targeted toward changing personal behaviors, sexual education, intravenous drug users, HIV-infected pregnant women, blood banks and healthcare workers.
  63. Recount the dramatic success of protease inhibitors in the treatment of patients infected with HIV.
  64. Answer specific questions of people living with HIV/AIDS, including progression to AIDS, opportunistic infections, antiretroviral drug therapy and safe sexual behavior.
  65. Counsel an HIV-infected person with the precautions he or she should take with food and water to avoid illnesses.
  66. Provide specific tips to HIV-infected individuals regarding safe drinking water, fruits, vegetables, meat, poultry and fish to remain healthy.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

HIV and Its Transmission

  • How HIV Is Transmitted
  • HIV in the Environment
  • Effectiveness of Condoms

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 2

Chapter 2. Epidemiology and Natural History of HIV Infection


HIV Transmission

  • Modes of Transmission
  • Factors Facilitating Transmission

Natural History and HIV Disease Progression

  • Staging
  • Untreated Natural History
  • Natural History in HAART Era

Future Issues

  • Global Impact
  • Containing the Epidemic
  • References

HIV/AIDS Among U.S. Women

  • Heterosexual Contact Now Is Greatest Risk for Women
  • Prevention Needs of Women

HIV/AIDS Among African Americans Prevention Efforts Must Focus on High-Risk Behaviors

  • Interrelated Prevention Challenges in African American Communities

HIV/AIDS Among Hispanics in the United States Historical Trends in AIDS Cases Among U.S. Hispanics

  • Building Better Prevention Programs for Hispanics

HIV/AIDS Among America’s Youth Improving HIV Prevention for Young People

Healthcare Workers with HIV/AIDS

Chapter 3. HIV Testing

Overview for HIV Antibody Testing

Rapid HIV Tests: Questions/Answers

General Questions

  • Questions–Technical, Counseling, and Implementation

Understanding Viral Load


Chapter 4. HIV Counseling
  • HIV Counseling and Testing-Overview
  • Historical Perspective
  • Goals of HIV Counseling, Testing, and Referral Services
  • Objectives of HIV Counseling, Testing, and Referral Services
  • Necessary Elements of HIV Counseling,Testing, and Referral Services

HIV Prevention Case Management

  • Staff Characteristics of the Prevention Case Manager
  • Characteristics of the Prevention Case Management Program Plan

HIV-Prevention Counseling

  • Notification of HIV Results and Prevention Counseling
  • Counseling and Repeat Testing

Referral Process

Partner Notification for Preventing (HIV) Infection

  • Terms
Chapter 5. Sex and HIV Prevention

Prevention and Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Diseases as an HIV Prevention Strategy

  • The Parallel Epidemics of HIV Infection and Other STDs
  • Other STDs Facilitate HIV Transmission
  • New Evidence of the Effectiveness of STD Treatment in HIV Prevention

Condoms and Their Use in Preventing HIV Infection and Other STDs

  • Primary HIV Infection Associated with Oral Transmission
  • Bibliography

HIV Prevention Among Men who Have Sex with Men

Continuing Risk Among Young MSM

Need to Combat Other STDs

Prevention Services Must Reach Both Uninfected and Infected

Women Who Have Sex With Women (WSW)


Chapter 6. IDUs and HIV
  • Injection Drug Use and the Transmission of HIV and Other Blood-Borne Infections
  • Critical Importance of Prevention and Treatment of Drug Dependence
  • HIV Risks Associated With Drug Injection
  • Recommendations to Drug Users Who Continue to Inject
  • References
Chapter 7. Universal Precautions

Universal Precautions for Prevention of Transmission of HIV, HBV, and Other Bloodborne Pathogens in Healthcare Settings

  • Introduction
  • Body Fluids to Which Universal Precautions Apply
  • Body Fluids to Which Universal Precautions Do Not Apply
  • Precautions for Other Body Fluids in Special Settings
  • Use of Protective Barriers
  • Glove Use for Phlebotomy
  • Selection of Gloves
  • Waste Management
  • References
Chapter 8. Occupational Exposures to Blood
  • Introduction
  • If An Exposure Occurs
  • Risk of Infection After Exposure
  • Treatment for the Exposure
Chapter 9. Strategies for Prevention of HIV Infection
  • Local Solutions to Local Problems
  • Guiding Principles
  • Confidentiality Must Remain Paramount
  • Sound Public Health Policy Must Be the Goal

A Comprehensive Approach To Preventing Blood-Borne Infections Among IDUS: New Attitudes & Strategies

  • Injection Drug Users are Important in the Transmission of HIV and Other Blood-borne Diseases
  • The Legal, Social, and Policy Environment Limits Options for IDUs
  • The Solution: A Comprehensive Approach to Working with IDUs

Combating Complacency in HIV Prevention

Chapter 10. Antiretroviral Therapy for Potential Non-occupational Exposures to HIV
  • References

Attacking AIDS with a ‘Cocktail’ Therapy Drug Combo Sends Deaths Plummeting

Prevention of Opportunistic Infections in Persons Infected with HI

Chapter 11. HIV and Tuberculosis

Chapter 12. Living With HIV/AIDS

Safe Food and Water: A Guide for People With HIV Infection

Caring for Someone with AIDS at Home

  • What You Need to Know About HIV and AIDS
  • How HIV is Spread
  • How HIV is Not Spread
  • Children with AIDS

Customer Comments

“The material was user friendly and allowed me the time to take the exam at ease.” – A.S., MFT, CA