Anatomy of Facial and Oral Structures


1. Anatomy of Facial and  Oral Structures   

v Introduction to Anatomy   

  n Basic Terminology 

           ¨ General Reference Terms  

           ¨ Body Planes

v Anatomical Terminology   

           ¨ Body Components    

           ¨ Terms of Position  

           ¨ Planes  

           ¨ Bony Elevations  

           ¨ Bone Depressions and Channels  

           ¨ Joints  

           ¨ Muscles 

v Bony Anatomy of the Head  

  n Overview  

           ¨ Cranial Bones 

           ¨ Facial Bones

  n Cranial and Facial Bones of Primary Interest in Prosthetic Dentistry 

           ¨ Cranial Bones of Primary Interest 

           ¨ Facial Bones of Primary Interest  

  n Particular Features of Cranial and Facial Bones  

           ¨ Frontal Bone    

           ¨ Parietal Bones   

           ¨ Temporal Bones    

           ¨ Sphenoid Bone    

  n Maxilla   

  n Palatine Bones   

  n Zygomatic Bone   

  n The Mandible   

  n The Hyoid Bone   

v The Muscles of Mastication and Depressors of the Mandible  

  n Overview   

  n Muscles of Mastication   

           ¨ Masseter 

           ¨ Temporal 

           ¨ Internal Pterygoid 

           ¨ External Pterygoid    

  n Depressor Muscles     

           ¨ Mylohyoid Muscle Attachments Sites

           ¨ Geniohyoid Muscle Attachment Sites

           ¨ Digastric Muscle Attachment Sites 

v Facial Expression Muscles   

  n Overview  

  n Muscles of Facial Expression   

           ¨ Orbicularis Oris 

           ¨ Quadrates Labii Superioris Muscle    

           ¨ Zygomaticus Muscle 

           ¨ Caninus Muscle 

           ¨ Risorius Muscle 

           ¨ Quadrates Labii Inferioris Muscle 

           ¨ Triangularis Muscle 

           ¨ Mentalis Muscle 

           ¨ Buccinator Muscle 

v Intraoral Soft Tissue Anatomy

  n General Overview 

  n Mucous Membrane

           ¨ Mucous Membrane of the Alveolar Process  

           ¨ Mucous Membrane of the Hard Palate

  n Vestibule 

  n Upper Jaw

           ¨ Alveolar Process 

           ¨ Alveolar Ridge 

           ¨ Maxillary Tuberosity 

           ¨ Hamular Notch

           ¨ Palate

           ¨ Incisive Papilla 

           ¨ Rugae

           ¨ Median Palatine Raphe

           ¨ Vibrating Line

           ¨ Palatine Fovea

           ¨ Labial Frenum

           ¨ Buccal Frenum

           ¨ Sulci

  n Lower Jaw

           ¨ Alveolar Process 

           ¨ Retromolar Pad 

           ¨ Buccal Shelf  

           ¨ Mental Foramen 

           ¨ Frena 

           ¨ Sulci

           ¨ Floor of the Mouth  

  n The Tongue     

           ¨ Intrinsic Muscles  

           ¨ Extrinsic Muscles  

  n Salivary Glands  

           ¨ Major Salivary Glands 

           ¨ Minor Salivary Glands  

v The Temporomandibular Joint    

  n Overview 

  n Temporamandibular Joint Structure 

           ¨ Glenoid Fossa    

           ¨ Articular Eminence   

           ¨ Condyle 

           ¨ Articular Disc 

           ¨ Synovial Cavities  

           ¨ Synovial Membrane and Associated Synovial Fluid     

           ¨ Capsule  

           ¨ Auxiliary Ligaments  

  n Basic Mandibular Movements    

           ¨ Opening and Closing     

   ¨ Protrusion and Retrusion  

           ¨ Right and Left Lateral     

2. Dental (Tooth) Anatomy    

v Terminology    

  n Groups of Teeth  

           ¨ Maxillary or Mandibular   

           ¨ Right or Left   

           ¨ Anteriors or Posteriors  

  n Names of Teeth    

           ¨ Anteriors   

           ¨ Posteriors   

  n Number Substitutes for Names of Teeth   

  n Structure of the Teeth and Supporting Tissues   

           ¨ Teeth   

           ¨ Supporting Structures of the Teeth

  n Crown Morphology (Contours)   

           ¨ Tooth Surfaces    

           ¨ Distinctive Crown Convexities and Concavities  

  n Proximal Surface Contact Characteristics 

           ¨ Contact Points or Areas 

           ¨ Embrasure  

  n Occlusal Surface Outlines of Posterior Teeth  

           ¨ Circular Rounded in Outline 

           ¨ Rectangular  

           ¨ Trapezoid  

           ¨ Rhomboidal 

v Descriptions of Individual Teeth  

  n Overview 

  n Maxillary Central Incisor 

  n Maxillary Lateral Incisor 

  n Maxillary Cuspid  

  n Maxillary First Bicuspid  

  n Maxillary Second Bicuspid   

  n Maxillary First Molar 

  n Maxillary Second Molar 

  n Mandibular Central Incisor 

  n Mandibular Lateral Incisor 

  n Mandibular Cuspid  

  n Mandibular First Bicuspid 

  n Mandibular Second Bicuspid 

  n Mandibular First Molar 

  n Mandibular Second Molar

Learning Objectives

After completing the course, you’ll be able to:

Anatomy of Facial and Oral Structures

  1. Define general reference terms (anterior and posterior, internal and external) and body planes (sagittal, frontal, transverse).
  2. Identify cranial and facial bones of the skull.
  3. Describe particular features of cranial and facial bones.
  4. Identify various bones and processes of the maxilla and mandible.
  5. Provide an overview of the muscles of mastication and depressor muscles of the mandible.
  6. Identify muscles of facial expression.
  7. Provide a general overview of the intraoral soft tissue anatomy.
  8. List the two muscle groups which make up the tongue and describe their respective functions.
  9. Identify major and minor salivary glands, their locations in the mouth and duct openings.
  10. Describe the temporomandibular joint structure and various basic mandibular movements.

Dental (Tooth) Anatomy

  1. Classify teeth into various groups.
  2. Provide numerical substitutes for names of teeth.
  3. Describe the structure of the teeth and supporting tissues.
  4. Distinguish between the gingiva and attached gingiva.
  5. Distinguish between various surfaces of a tooth.
  6. Name the coronal features of teeth.
  7. Identify proximal surface contact characteristics.
  8. Define contact points or areas and embrasure.
  9. Distinguish among occlusal surface outlines of posterior teeth.
  10. Describe each individual tooth.


Learning Objectives

To assess the effectiveness of the course material, we ask that you evaluate your achievement of each learning objective on a scale of A to D (A=excellent, B=good, C=fair, D=unsatisfactory). Please indicate your responses next to each learning objective and return it to us with your completed exam.