Nutritional Disorders of Children

Learning Objectives

After completing this course you will be able to:

Part I: Screening and Follow-up

  1. Plan a screening program aimed at identifying individuals in a community likely to be at nutritional risk.

  2. Formulate questions about diet and eating habits of children.

  3. Describe proper procedure to be employed to measure height and weight of children.

  4. Analyze and interpret assessments of small size for age or low weight for height measurements.

  5. Provide interpretation of excess weight for height.

  6. Describe the procedure for measurement of skin fold thickness.

  7. List desired hemoglobin concentration in children of various ages.

  8. Formulate an interview questionnaire by nutritionist.

Part II: Prevention of Common Disorders

Chapter 1: Prevention of Obesity

  1. Define obesity.

  2. Describe three factors that provide early prediction of later obesity.

  3. Explain hyperplasia of adipose tissue.

  4. Discuss clinical studies that have correlated the imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure to obesity.

  5. Discuss the importance of establishing early good eating habits.

Chapter 2: Diet and Atherosclerosis

  1. Define atherosclerosis. Discuss the controversy surrounding atherosclerosis and the management of diet in early childhood.

  2. Discuss opinions opposing and favoring change in children's diets.

  3. Discuss the potential hazards of altering diets of infants and children.

  4. Chapter 3: Prevention of Dental Caries

  5. Identify 3 prerequisites for production of dental caries.

  6. Discuss the epidemiology of dental caries.

  7. Discuss how various dietary factors affect the incidence of dental caries.

  8. List in the order of importance, cariogenicity factors of 6 dietary habits.

  9. Describe how various carbohydrates serve as substrates for the production of plaque and organic acids.

  10. List foods to be avoided by children between meals.

  11. Describe the "nursing bottle caries" and its causative factors.

  12. Describe how fluoride helps protect teeth against caries.

Chapter 4: Prevention of Iron-Deficiency Anemia

  1. Define iron deficiency anemia in infants and children.

  2. List 3 groups in which the concentrations of hemoglobin are below the normal range.

  3. Describe the iron requirement for male and female children in various age groups.

  4. Describe the absorption rates of iron naturally present in foods from animal sources and vegetable sources.

  5. Distinguish between absorption of hemeiron and non-hemeiron.

  6. Discuss means of achieving dietary requirements for infants, preschool children, school age children, males-years of age, and females-years of age


CONTENTS

Foreword

Preface

PART ONE: SCREENING AND FOLLOWUP

Information about the community

Information about the family and the child

Questions about diet and eating habits

Questionnaire I-Infants

Questionnaire II-Preschool children and young school-age children whose parent or caretaker will answer for them

Questionnaire III-School-age children and adolescents who answer the questions themselves

Physical findings

Dental inspection

Height (or length) and weight

Head circumference

Skinfold thickness

Laboratory studies

Roentgenograms

Summary

References

Appendix

 

PART TWO: PREVENTION OF COMMON DISORDERS

CHAPTER 1. PREVENTION OF OBESITY

Samuel J. Fomon and Ekhard E. Ziegler

        Definition

        Early prediction of later obesity

        Energy intake and expenditure

        Establishing habits

        Summary

CHAPTER 2. DIET AND ATHEROSCLEROSIS

Samuel J. Fomon

        Definition, pathogenesis and general considerations

        The current controversy

        Familial hyperlipoproteinemia

        Summary

CHAPTER 3. PREVENTION OF DENTAL CARIES

Samuel J. Fornon and Stephen H. Y. Wei

        Foods and feeding

        Cleaning the teeth

        Fluoride

        Establishing habits

        Summary

CHAPTER 4. PREVENTION OF IRON-DEFICIENCY ANEMIA

Samuel J. Fornon, Ekhard E. Ziegler and Thomas A. Anderson

        Definitions

        Prevalence

        Iron requirements

        Absorption of iron

        Dietary intake of iron

        Means of achieving dietary requirements

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