Nutritional Disorders of Children
After completing this course you will be able to:
Part I: Screening and Follow-up
Plan a screening program aimed at identifying individuals in a community likely to be at nutritional risk.
Formulate questions about diet and eating habits of children.
Describe proper procedure to be employed to measure height and weight of children.
Analyze and interpret assessments of small size for age or low weight for height measurements.
Provide interpretation of excess weight for height.
Describe the procedure for measurement of skin fold thickness.
List desired hemoglobin concentration in children of various ages.
Formulate an interview questionnaire by nutritionist.
Part II: Prevention of Common Disorders
Chapter 1: Prevention of Obesity
Describe three factors that provide early prediction of later obesity.
Explain hyperplasia of adipose tissue.
Discuss clinical studies that have correlated the imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure to obesity.
Discuss the importance of establishing early good eating habits.
Chapter 2: Diet and Atherosclerosis
Define atherosclerosis. Discuss the controversy surrounding atherosclerosis and the management of diet in early childhood.
Discuss opinions opposing and favoring change in children's diets.
Discuss the potential hazards of altering diets of infants and children.
Chapter 3: Prevention of Dental Caries
Identify 3 prerequisites for production of dental caries.
Discuss the epidemiology of dental caries.
Discuss how various dietary factors affect the incidence of dental caries.
List in the order of importance, cariogenicity factors of 6 dietary habits.
Describe how various carbohydrates serve as substrates for the production of plaque and organic acids.
List foods to be avoided by children between meals.
Describe the "nursing bottle caries" and its causative factors.
Describe how fluoride helps protect teeth against caries.
Chapter 4: Prevention of Iron-Deficiency Anemia
Define iron deficiency anemia in infants and children.
List 3 groups in which the concentrations of hemoglobin are below the normal range.
Describe the iron requirement for male and female children in various age groups.
Describe the absorption rates of iron naturally present in foods from animal sources and vegetable sources.
Distinguish between absorption of hemeiron and non-hemeiron.
Discuss means of achieving dietary requirements for infants, preschool children, school age children, males-years of age, and females-years of age
PART ONE: SCREENING AND FOLLOWUP
Information about the community
Information about the family and the child
Questions about diet and eating habits
Questionnaire II-Preschool children and young school-age children whose parent or caretaker will answer for them
Questionnaire III-School-age children and adolescents who answer the questions themselves
Height (or length) and weight
PART TWO: PREVENTION OF COMMON DISORDERS
CHAPTER 1. PREVENTION OF OBESITY
Samuel J. Fomon and Ekhard E. Ziegler
Early prediction of later obesity
Energy intake and expenditure
CHAPTER 2. DIET AND ATHEROSCLEROSIS
Samuel J. Fomon
Definition, pathogenesis and general considerations
The current controversy
CHAPTER 3. PREVENTION OF DENTAL CARIES
Samuel J. Fornon and Stephen H. Y. Wei
Foods and feeding
Cleaning the teeth
CHAPTER 4. PREVENTION OF IRON-DEFICIENCY ANEMIA
Samuel J. Fornon, Ekhard E. Ziegler and Thomas A. Anderson
Absorption of iron
Dietary intake of iron
Means of achieving dietary requirements
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