Upon completion of the course
you'll be able to:
- Describe how HIV is transmitted and dispel some
of the common misconceptions about how one cannot get HIV.
- Describe the presence and possibility of
transmission of HIV in households, food- service establishments, through kissing, biting,
saliva, tears, sweat and insects.
- Distinguish HIV-from HIV-with respect to its
infectiousness, prevalence, testing and clinical treatment.
- Describe the natural history of HIV infection in
adults and the progression of the disease to AIDS.
- Discuss the CDC system for classifying HIV
infection and AIDS in adults and adolescents in the
and identify clinical conditions under each of the three categories.
- Contrast the clinical HIV staging system used by
the World Health Organization with the one used in the U.S. and identify the performance scale
criteria that define the classical stages of the disease.
- Define "viral set-point" and indicate
its use in predicting the rate of future progression of the illness.
- List various laboratory tests used as indicators
of prognosis and/or stage of illness in HIV infection and weigh their advantages and
- List host factors, viral factors, acquired
factors and clinical indicators that influence the rate of HIV-disease progression.
- Describe the measures that should be taken to
control the HIV epidemic world- wide.
- Identify the three primary routes of HIV
transmission and indicate the relative risk of infection.
- Discuss the three factors infectiousness of the
host, susceptibility of the recipient and the quantity and infectivity of the virus that
influence the transmission of HIV infection.
- Identify the HIV/AIDS prevention needs of women.
- Address the special challenges posed to the
prevention of HIV epidemic in the African American community.
- Describe the epidemiologist of HIV/AIDS among
Hispanics in the
and compare HIV exposure risks for U.S.-born Hispanics and Hispanics born in their countries.
- Describe the epidemiologist of HIV/AIDS among
- Indicate various categories of persons for whom
counseling and early diagnosis of HIV infection are recommended.
- List the categories of people for whom
HIV-testing is indicated.
- Describe the standard screening test for
antibody to HIV and contrast it with the rapid HIV testing.
- Discuss the various advantages and disadvantages
of rapid HIV test as compared to an EIA.
- Understand the importance of measuring HIV-RNA
blood levels (viral load.)
- Explain what "undetectable" level of
HIV in the blood means.
- List steps for the correct use of condoms.
- List goals and objectives of HIV counseling,
testing and referral services.
- Describe necessary elements of HIV counseling,
testing and referral services.
- Develop and monitor standards and guidelines for
HIV counseling, testing and referral program.
- Formulate an HIV-prevention counseling program
based on the standards and
guidelines established by the CDC.
- Design and set up a program for notification of
HIV test results depending upon the results being positive, negative or indeterminate.
- Describe what the counselor should do with
respect to repeat testing if the previous HIV-test was positive or negative or indeterminate.
- Provide counseling to clients who doubt previous
seropositive test results.
- Discuss the partner notification program as a
means to identify and target risk-
- reduction seduction to individuals at high risk
for contracting or transmitting HIV infection.
- Identify and describe the two complementary
notification processes used to identify partners: patient referral and provider referral.
- Describe the five goals of HIV prevention case
- Differentiate PCM from other HIV risk-reduction
activities, such as street outreach and HIV counseling and testing.
- Make the connection between sexually transmitted
diseases and HIV and explain how other STDs facilitate HIV transmission.
- Point to the new evidence of the effectiveness
of STD treatment in HIV prevention.
- Point to statistics showing the effectiveness of
condoms in preventing HIV and STDs.
- Discuss the study sponsored by the CDC that
quantified the risk of HIV infection associated with oral transmission.
- Describe the prevalence of HIV among men who
have sex with men and outline the measures to combat the spread of STDs and HIV in this
- Describe the risk of HIV transmission among
women who have sex with women and list specific measures that should be taken to reduce their
risk of contracting HIV.
- Discuss the injection drug use and the
transmission of HIV and other blood-borne infections.
- Make specific recommendations to drug users who
continue to inject to reduce the public and individual health risks.
- Describe the extent of the problem in curbing
the transmission of HIV and other blood-borne diseases in the intravenous drug-using
- Enunciate the basic principles underlying the
comprehensive approach to working with IDUs.
- Outline various strategies to prevent
blood-borne infections among IDUs that include substance abuse treatment, community outreach,
access to sterile syringes, services in the criminal justice system, prevention through sexual
transmission and counseling and testing services.
- Define universal precautions and list body
fluids to which universal precautions apply and those to which they do not apply.
- Discuss precautions that a healthcare worker
should take for other body fluids in special settings.
- Describe general guidelines for healthcare
workers in the use of protective barriers.
- Discuss why the routine use of gloves for all
phlebotomies is not necessary.
- Identify general guidelines in the selection and
use of gloves in healthcare settings.
- Explain the existing recommendations for the use
of antiretroviral drugs after occupational and nonoccupational exposures to HIV.
- Articulate why antiretroviral drug therapy for
sexual, drug use, or other nonoccupational exposures to HIV should not be used.
- Discuss the risk of infection to HBV, HCV and
HIV following occupational exposures to blood and explain the treatment measures that should be
taken following the exposure.
- Identify 1essential elements of comprehensive
programs for the prevention of HIV Infection.
- Discuss guiding principles that form the basis
of comprehensive HIV prevention programs targeted toward specific population groups, such as
high-risk individuals, partners of infected individuals, HIV-infected individuals engaging in
sexual and drug- related behaviors that put them at risk, youth, inmates in correctional
facilities and healthcare workers.
- Provide comprehensive HIV prevention
interventions for substance abusers.
- Identify the prevention measures for the
transmission of perinatal HIV.
- Evaluate the risk healthcare workers face of
getting HIV on the job.
- Evaluate the risk of patients in a dentist's or
doctor's office of getting HIV.
- Review the effectiveness of HIV prevention
programs targeted toward changing personal behaviors, sexual education, intravenous drug users,
HIV-infected pregnant women, blood banks and healthcare workers.
- Recount the dramatic success of protease
inhibitors in the treatment of patients infected with HIV.
- Answer specific questions of people living with
HIV/AIDS, including progression to AIDS, opportunistic infections, antiretroviral drug therapy
and safe sexual behavior.
- Counsel an HIV-infected person with the
precautions he or she should take with food and water to avoid illnesses.
- Provide specific tips to HIV-infected
individuals regarding safe drinking water, fruits, vegetables, meat, poultry and fish to remain
Evaluation of Individual Objectives
To assess the effectiveness of the course
material, we ask that you evaluate your achievement of each learning objective on a scale of A to
D (A=excellent, B=good, C=fair, D=unsatisfactory). Please indicate your responses next to each
learning objective and return it to us with your completed exam.
Chapter 1. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
HIV and Its Transmission
How HIV Is Transmitted
HIV in the Environment
Effectiveness of Condoms
Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 2
Chapter 2.Epidemiology and Natural History of HIV Infection
Natural History and HIV Disease Progression
Containing the Epidemic
HIV/AIDS Among U.S. Women
HIV/AIDS Among African Americans Prevention Efforts Must Focus
on High-Risk Behaviors
HIV/AIDS Among Hispanics in the United States Historical Trends
in AIDS Cases Among U.S. Hispanics
HIV/AIDS Among America’s Youth Improving
HIV Prevention for Young People
Healthcare Workers with HIV/AIDS
Chapter 3. HIV Testing
Overview for HIV Antibody Testing
Rapid HIV Tests: Questions/Answers
Understanding Viral Load
Chapter 4. HIV Counseling
HIV Counseling and Testing-Overview
Goals of HIV Counseling, Testing, and Referral
Objectives of HIV Counseling, Testing, and
Necessary Elements of HIV Counseling,Testing,
and Referral Services
HIV Prevention Case Management
Partner Notification for Preventing (HIV) Infection
Chapter 5. Sex and HIV Prevention
Prevention and Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Diseases as an
HIV Prevention Strategy
The Parallel Epidemics of HIV Infection and
Other STDs Facilitate HIV Transmission
New Evidence of the Effectiveness of STD
Treatment in HIV Prevention
Condoms and Their Use in Preventing HIV Infection and Other
HIV Prevention Among Men who Have Sex with Men
Continuing Risk Among Young MSM
Need to Combat Other STDs
Prevention Services Must Reach Both Uninfected
Women Who Have Sex With Women (WSW)
Chapter 6. IDUs and HIV
Injection Drug Use and the Transmission of HIV
and Other Blood-Borne
Critical Importance of Prevention and Treatment
of Drug Dependence
HIV Risks Associated With Drug Injection
Recommendations to Drug Users Who Continue to
Chapter 7. Universal Precautions
Universal Precautions for Prevention of Transmission of HIV,
HBV, and Other Bloodborne Pathogens in Healthcare Settings
Body Fluids to Which Universal Precautions
Body Fluids to Which Universal Precautions Do
Precautions for Other Body Fluids in Special
Use of Protective Barriers
Glove Use for Phlebotomy
Selection of Gloves
Chapter 8. Occupational Exposures to Blood
Strategies for Prevention of HIV Infection
Local Solutions to Local Problems
Confidentiality Must Remain
Sound Public Health Policy Must Be the Goal
A Comprehensive Approach To Preventing Blood-Borne Infections Among IDUS: New Attitudes & Strategies
Injection Drug Users are Important in the
Transmission of HIV and Other Blood-borne Diseases
The Legal, Social, and Policy Environment
Limits Options for IDUs
The Solution: A Comprehensive Approach to
Working with IDUs
Combating Complacency in HIV Prevention
Chapter 10. Antiretroviral Therapy for Potential
Nonoccupational Exposures to HIV
Attacking AIDS with a ‘Cocktail’ Therapy Drug Combo Sends
Prevention of Opportunistic Infections in Persons Infected with
Chapter 11. HIV and Tuberculosis
Chapter 12. Living With HIV/AIDS
Safe Food and Water: A Guide for People With HIV Infection
Caring for Someone with AIDS at Home
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