Fundamentals of Clinical
After completing this course, you will be able to:
- List 7 dietary guidelines for Americans and relate them to the
Food Guide Pyramid.
- List recommended number of daily servings of different foods for adults.
- Explain various elements of the food label, called Nutrition Facts.
- Explain the vegetarian pyramid.
- Discuss various factors predisposing to obesity, such as genetic, neuroendocrine
syndromes, abnormalities of energy metabolism and exoenous factors.
- Make a clinical assessment of the obese patient.
- Discuss various diseases associated with obesity and point out their ill effects on
life-style and health.
- Enumerate 4 criteria for selecting weight control programs.
- Discuss prevention and treatment of obesity with emphasis on weight cycling,
dietary management, physical activity, behavioral modification and psychosocial
support, drug therapy and surgical procedures.
- Provide a definition of diabetes, list goals of nutritional therapy, and discuss diabetic
- Discuss nutrition and cardiovascular disease and point out effects of specific nutrients.
- Explain nutritional correlates with hypertension.
- List specific foods to avoid on a sodium-restricted diet.
- Discuss nutrition and oral health and list multifactorial interactions in the etiology
of dental caries.
- List risk factors for osteoporosis and prescribe optimal calcium intake for various age
- List components that aid in the diagnosis of osteoporosis and enumerate various drugs
used in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.
- Define anemia and discuss iron deficiency anemia and the deficiency of folic acid.
- Provide a definition and diagnosis of eating disorders, list their medical complications
and describe treatment modalities.
- Describe the effects of alcohol on nutritional status.
- Describe physiologic changes of pregnancy affecting nutrition status and make
recommendations concerning rate of weight gain and total weight gain.
- Enumerate specific nutrient needs during pregnancy.
- Make suggestions for the management of common problems of pregnancy.
- Describe the nutritional advantages of breastfeeding.
- List drugs contraindicated during pregnancy.
- Provide 3 guidelines for feeding premature infants.
- Prepare a schedule for introducing infants to solid foods and list 7 guidelines for
- Emphasize the importance of water, carbohydrates, fat, protein, vitamins, minerals
and trace minerals in the diet of infants.
- List the nutritional requirements during the childhood and adolescent stages.
- List risk factors for under nutrition
in older adults.
- Make a nutritional assessment for the older adult.
- Discuss 5 macronutrients: energy, proteins and amino acids, fats, carbohydrates and
fiber, and water and electrolytes.
- Discuss various vitamins ( A,
B6, B12, C, D, E, K,
B3, B2, B1) and folic acid in terms of
physiology and biochemical pathways; metabolism and excretion; RDA and nutrient
interactions; food sources; signs, symptoms and treatment of deficiency state; and use
and effects of large doses.
- Discuss minerals and trace elements (calcium, iodine, iron, magnesium, phosphorus,
Zinc and other trace elements) in terms of physiology and biochemical pathways;
metabolism and excretion; RDA and nutrient interactions; food sources; signs, symptoms and treatment of deficiency state; and use and effects of large doses.
- Distinguish between primary and secondary malnutrition.
- Compare common types of malnutrition: marasmus and kwashiorkor.
- Prepare a nutritional history screen for a patient to detect deficiency syndromes.
- Conduct a clinical nutrition examination of the patient.
- Interpret various laboratory tests in terms of normal, common and uncommon values.
- Write guidelines for feeding the hospitalized patient.
- Write guidelines for the carbohydrate-modified (diabetic) diet.
- Prepare modified diets for protein, fat and sodium.
- Administer enteral feeding and parenteral nutrition.
- Make general diet recommendations for renal patients.
- Describe the impact of nutrition on the pancreas, inflammatory bowel disease, celiac
sprue, pulmonary disease and respiratory system.
- Discuss nutrition, HIV infection and AIDS.
- Provide nutritional support to the critically ill patient.
- List various drugs and their effects on nutrients.
Evaluation of Individual Objectives
To assess the effectiveness of the course material, we ask that you evaluate your achievement of
each learning objective on a scale of A to D (A=excellent, B=good, C=fair, D=unsatisfactory).
Please indicate your responses next to each learning objective and return it to us with your completed exam.
Table Of Contents
Chapter 1: Dietary Trends
Chapter 2: Diseases of Modern Society With Nutritional Correlates
Chapter 3: Nutrition Throughout the Life Cycle
Chapter 4: Case Studies
Chapter 5: Macronutrients
Chapter 6: Vitamins
Chapter 7: Minerals and Trace Elements
Chapter 8: Case Studies
Chapter 9: Prevalence and Types of Malnutrition
Chapter 10: Nutritional Assessment
Chapter 11: Nutritional Support
Chapter 12: Nutritional Support in Special Disease States
Chapter 13: Case Studies
A Case Study Answers
B Normal Laboratory Values
C Contents of Vitamin and
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