Diabetes

Learning Objectives

Upon completing the course, you will be able to:

1. National Diabetes Statistics

  1. Classify various types of diabetes and their prevalence in the general population.
  2. Describe the prevalence of diabetes among people under 20 years of age, among people 20 years or older, and in various ethnic population groups.
  3. Identify various complications of diabetes and cite mortality figures from the complications.

4. Diabetes in African Americans

  1. Cite statistics illustrating the magnitude of diabetes among African Americans.
  2. Discuss genetics and medical and lifestyle risk factors that increase the chance of developing type 2 diabetes among African Americans.
  3. Describe how diabetes complications affect African Americans.

5. Diabetes in Hispanic Americans

  1. Discuss various epidemiology studies about diabetes in Hispanic Americans.

6. Diabetes in Asian and Pacific Islander Americans

  1. Discuss lifestyle and medical risk factors for diabetes in Asian and Pacific Islander Americans.

7. Diabetes Diagnosis

  1. Describe the new nomenclature and the criteria for the diagnosis of diabetes.
  2. Discuss with the patient how a diagnosis of diabetes is made.
  3. Identify 7 risk factors for diabetes.

7. About Pre-Diabetes

  1. Define and answer prediabetes questions, such as the need for testing.

8. Am I at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes

  1. Discuss the results of the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) study in preventing or delaying the development of type 2 diabetes.
  2. List 7 signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes.
  3. Provide an overview of the three main kinds of diabetesĖtype 1, type 2 and gestational diabetes.
  4. Identify 7 factors that increase a personís risk for type 2 diabetes
  5. Advise a patient on the steps he or she can take to reduce the risk of getting diabetes.

9. Hypoglycemia

  1. Describe how the body controls glucose and list various symptoms of hypoglycemia.
  2. Describe certain rare causes of hypoglycemia.
  3. Describe the pancreatic islet transplantation and explain the benefits and risks of transplantation.

10. What I Need to Know About Eating and Diabetes

  1. Teach a patient about the importance of eating to control diabetes.
  2. Explain the food pyramid and prescribe proper servings of starches, vegetables, fruit, milk and yogurt, meat, and fats and sweets.
  3. Help a diabetic patient with his or her meal plan.

11. Kidney Disease of Diabetes

  1. Describe the course of kidney disease through five stages.
  2. Advise a patient in ways of preventing and slowing kidney disease.

12. Prevent Diabetes Problems: Keep Your Kidneys Healthy

  1. Teach a patient about kidney problems caused by diabetes.

13. End-Stage Renal Disease: Choosing a Treatment Thatís Right For You

  1. Explain to a patient three treatment choices when kidneys fail.
  2. Advise a patient who is on hemodialysis about proper diet.
  3. Describe for a patient hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis and their relative advantages and disadvantages.
  4. Describe kidney transplantation as a treatment of choice for ESRD.

14. Diabetic Neuropathies: The Nerve Damage of Diabetes

  1. Describe the causes, symptoms and types of diabetic neuropathy.
  2. Describe how autonomic neuropathy affects the nerves in lungs, heart, stomach, intestines, bladder, and sex organs.
  3. Explain to a patient various tests that are done to diagnose neuropathy.

15. Gastroparesis and Diabetes

  1. Describe gastroparesis, its symptoms, complications and treatment.

16. Impotence

  1. Define impotence and explain what causes impotence.
  2. Explain how an erection occurs.
  3. Describe the treatment for impotence, including psychotherapy, drug therapy, and surgery.

18. Keep Your Heart and Blood Vessels Healthy

  1. Teach a diabetic patient about keeping his heart and blood vessels healthy.

21. Keep Your Diabetes Under Control

  1. Discuss with a patient the importance of keeping the hemoglobin A1c number under control.

22. Guiding Principles for Diabetes Care

  1. Enunciate 7 principles of quality diabetes treatment.

23. Medicines For People With Diabetes

  1. Explain to a patient why he or she needs to take medicines for diabetes.
  2. List various types of diabetic pills that help lower blood glucose and identify their mode of action.
  3. Teach a patient how to recognize symptoms of hypoglycemia and what to do if the blood glucose is low.

24. Alternative Therapies for Diabetes

  1. Discuss various alternative therapies, such as acupuncture, biofeedback, chromium, magnesium and vanadium for the treatment of diabetes.

26. Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT)

  1. Discuss the findings of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT).

26. The Prevention or Delay of Type 2 Diabetes

  1. Discuss various clinical studies initiated to determine the feasibility and benefit of various strategies to prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes.
  2. On the basis of these clinical studies, identify potential candidates for screening and intervention, compare lifestyle modification with pharmacological interventions, and evaluate various strategies to prevent diabetes.

27. Diet and Exercise Delay Diabetes

  1. Describe the results of the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) trial and compare the relative benefits of lifestyle modification, treatment with metformin and standard medical advice.

28. Diabetes Prevention Program: Questions & Answers

  1. Answer specific questions posed by a patient about diabetes: its prevalence, diagnosis, prevention, importance of diet and exercise.

29. Understanding Gestational Diabetes: A Practical Guide to Healthy Pregnancy

  1. Describe the pathogenesis of gestational diabetes.
  2. List factors indicative of women who might develop gestational diabetes during pregnancy.
  3. Explain the 50-gram and 3-hour glucose tests for tolerance gestational diabetes.
  4. Explain how gestational diabetes affects pregnancy and how it may affect the baby.
  5. Answer the question often asked by pregnant women: How much weight should I gain?
  6. Provide guidance to a pregnant woman about the optimal intake of six food groups during pregnancy.
  7. Describe various tests done to assess the condition of the fetus before birth.
  8. Advise a pregnant woman about the importance of diet and exercise to control her blood sugars.

30. Consequences of Alcohol Use in Diabetics

  1. Explain the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus.
  2. Describe the blood glucose regulation by insulin in healthy people and in people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes.
  3. Describe the effects of alcohol consumption on blood sugar levels of diabetics.
  4. Contrast the effects of alcohol consumption in the fed and fasting states of diabetics.
  5. Describe the alcoholís effects on complications of diabetes, such as diabetic ketoacidosis, lipid metabolism, cardiovascular disease, peripheral neuropathy and retinopathy.
Learning Objectives To assess the effectiveness of the course material, we ask that you evaluate your achievement of each learning objective on a scale of A to D (A=excellent, B=good, C=fair, D=unsatisfactory). Please indicate your responses next to each learning objective and return it to us with your completed exam. Diabetes Learning Objectives Upon completing the course, you will be able to:

1. National Diabetes Statistics

  1. Classify various types of diabetes and their prevalence in the general population.
  2. Describe the prevalence of diabetes among people under 20 years of age, among people 20 years or older, and in various ethnic population groups.
  3. Identify various complications of diabetes and cite mortality figures from the complications.

4. Diabetes in African Americans

  1. Cite statistics illustrating the magnitude of diabetes among African Americans.
  2. Discuss genetics and medical and lifestyle risk factors that increase the chance of developing type 2 diabetes among African Americans.
  3. Describe how diabetes complications affect African Americans.

5. Diabetes in Hispanic Americans

  1. Discuss various epidemiology studies about diabetes in Hispanic Americans.

6. Diabetes in Asian and Pacific Islander Americans

  1. Discuss lifestyle and medical risk factors for diabetes in Asian and Pacific Islander Americans.

7. Diabetes Diagnosis

  1. Describe the new nomenclature and the criteria for the diagnosis of diabetes.
  2. Discuss with the patient how a diagnosis of diabetes is made.
  3. Identify 7 risk factors for diabetes.

7. About Pre-Diabetes

  1. Define and answer prediabetes questions, such as the need for testing.

8. Am I at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes

  1. Discuss the results of the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) study in preventing or delaying the development of type 2 diabetes.
  2. List 7 signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes.
  3. Provide an overview of the three main kinds of diabetesĖtype 1, type 2 and gestational diabetes.
  4. Identify 7 factors that increase a personís risk for type 2 diabetes
  5. Advise a patient on the steps he or she can take to reduce the risk of getting diabetes.

9. Hypoglycemia

  1. Describe how the body controls glucose and list various symptoms of hypoglycemia.
  2. Describe certain rare causes of hypoglycemia.
  3. Describe the pancreatic islet transplantation and explain the benefits and risks of transplantation.

10. What I Need to Know About Eating and Diabetes

  1. Teach a patient about the importance of eating to control diabetes.
  2. Explain the food pyramid and prescribe proper servings of starches, vegetables, fruit, milk and yogurt, meat, and fats and sweets.
  3. Help a diabetic patient with his or her meal plan.

11. Kidney Disease of Diabetes

  1. Describe the course of kidney disease through five stages.
  2. Advise a patient in ways of preventing and slowing kidney disease.

12. Prevent Diabetes Problems: Keep Your Kidneys Healthy

  1. Teach a patient about kidney problems caused by diabetes.

13. End-Stage Renal Disease: Choosing a Treatment Thatís Right For You

  1. Explain to a patient three treatment choices when kidneys fail.
  2. Advise a patient who is on hemodialysis about proper diet.
  3. Describe for a patient hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis and their relative advantages and disadvantages.
  4. Describe kidney transplantation as a treatment of choice for ESRD.

14. Diabetic Neuropathies: The Nerve Damage of Diabetes

  1. Describe the causes, symptoms and types of diabetic neuropathy.
  2. Describe how autonomic neuropathy affects the nerves in lungs, heart, stomach, intestines, bladder, and sex organs.
  3. Explain to a patient various tests that are done to diagnose neuropathy.

15. Gastroparesis and Diabetes

  1. Describe gastroparesis, its symptoms, complications and treatment.

16. Impotence

  1. Define impotence and explain what causes impotence.
  2. Explain how an erection occurs.
  3. Describe the treatment for impotence, including psychotherapy, drug therapy, and surgery.

18. Keep Your Heart and Blood Vessels Healthy

  1. Teach a diabetic patient about keeping his heart and blood vessels healthy.

21. Keep Your Diabetes Under Control

  1. Discuss with a patient the importance of keeping the hemoglobin A1c number under control.

22. Guiding Principles for Diabetes Care

  1. Enunciate 7 principles of quality diabetes treatment.

23. Medicines For People With Diabetes

  1. Explain to a patient why he or she needs to take medicines for diabetes.
  2. List various types of diabetic pills that help lower blood glucose and identify their mode of action.
  3. Teach a patient how to recognize symptoms of hypoglycemia and what to do if the blood glucose is low.

24. Alternative Therapies for Diabetes

  1. Discuss various alternative therapies, such as acupuncture, biofeedback, chromium, magnesium and vanadium for the treatment of diabetes.

26. Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT)

  1. Discuss the findings of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT).

26. The Prevention or Delay of Type 2 Diabetes

  1. Discuss various clinical studies initiated to determine the feasibility and benefit of various strategies to prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes.
  2. On the basis of these clinical studies, identify potential candidates for screening and intervention, compare lifestyle modification with pharmacological interventions, and evaluate various strategies to prevent diabetes.

27. Diet and Exercise Delay Diabetes

  1. Describe the results of the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) trial and compare the relative benefits of lifestyle modification, treatment with metformin and standard medical advice.

28. Diabetes Prevention Program: Questions & Answers

  1. Answer specific questions posed by a patient about diabetes: its prevalence, diagnosis, prevention, importance of diet and exercise.

29. Understanding Gestational Diabetes: A Practical Guide to Healthy Pregnancy

  1. Describe the pathogenesis of gestational diabetes.
  2. List factors indicative of women who might develop gestational diabetes during pregnancy.
  3. Explain the 50-gram and 3-hour glucose tests for tolerance gestational diabetes.
  4. Explain how gestational diabetes affects pregnancy and how it may affect the baby.
  5. Answer the question often asked by pregnant women: How much weight should I gain?
  6. Provide guidance to a pregnant woman about the optimal intake of six food groups during pregnancy.
  7. Describe various tests done to assess the condition of the fetus before birth.
  8. Advise a pregnant woman about the importance of diet and exercise to control her blood sugars.

30. Consequences of Alcohol Use in Diabetics

  1. Explain the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus.
  2. Describe the blood glucose regulation by insulin in healthy people and in people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes.
  3. Describe the effects of alcohol consumption on blood sugar levels of diabetics.
  4. Contrast the effects of alcohol consumption in the fed and fasting states of diabetics.
  5. Describe the alcoholís effects on complications of diabetes, such as diabetic ketoacidosis, lipid metabolism, cardiovascular disease, peripheral neuropathy and retinopathy.

Learning Objectives

To assess the effectiveness of the course material, we ask that you evaluate your achievement of each learning objective on a scale of A to D (A=excellent, B=good, C=fair, D=unsatisfactory). Please indicate your responses next to each learning objective and return it to us with your completed exam.